The IBM® FlashSystem™ 840 storage system delivers high performance, efficiency, and reliability for shared enterprise storage environments, helping clients around the world address performance issues with their most important applications and infrastructure.
For related information about this topic, refer to the following IBM Redbooks publication:
Implementing IBM FlashSystem 840, SG24-8189-00
Implementing IBM FlashSystem 840
This IBM® Redbooks® Product Guide describes IBM FlashSystem™ 840. Today's global organizations depend upon the ability to unlock business insights from massive volumes of data, and they need to be able to do it faster than the competition. Flash technology has changed the economics of today's data center by eliminating storage bottlenecks. Flash technology has redefined the performance, efficiency, and reliability of data-intensive applications. In fact, IBM flash storage offerings provide extreme input/output operations per second (IOPS) performance in a power-efficient footprint.
FlashSystem 840 provides scalable performance for the most demanding enterprise class applications, including virtualized or bare-metal online transaction processing (OLTP) and online analytical processing (OLAP) databases, virtual desktop infrastructures (VDI), technical computing applications, and cloud environments. IBM FlashSystem 840 accelerates response times with IBM MicroLatency™ to enable faster decision making.
FlashSystem 840 can either complement or replace traditional hard disk drive (HDD) arrays in most applications. As a standard, shared primary data storage device, FlashSystem 840 delivers performance beyond that of most traditional arrays, even those that incorporate solid-state drives (SSDs) or other flash technology. FlashSystem 840 can also be used as the top tier of storage alongside traditional arrays in tiered storage architectures, such as the IBM Easy Tier® function that is available in IBM System Storage® SAN Volume Controller or IBM Storwize® V7000 storage virtualization platforms. Figure 1 shows FlashSystem 840.
Figure 1. FlashSystem 840
Did you know?
- FlashSystem 840 is configurable with 4 - 48 TB of usable capacity for increased flexibility.
- All active parts are hot-swappable, including the flash modules.
- FlashSystem 840 supports AES XTS 256 data-at-rest encryption.
- The FlashSystem 840 graphical user interface (GUI) provides simplified management that results in 4.8x faster setup than the prior generation GUI.
FlashSystem 840 provides extreme performance, enterprise-class reliability, energy efficiency, and optional data-at-rest encryption.
Scalability and performance
FlashSystem 840 has the following scalability and performance features:
- IBM MicroLatency provides latency that is measured in microseconds
- High aggregate performance (bandwidth) and IOPS (I/Os per second)
- Two hot-swappable canisters, providing connectivity to the host
- Flexible interface types of Fibre Channel, Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE), and InfiniBand
- Up to 16 ports of 8 Gbps or eight ports of 16 Gbps Fibre Channel
- Up to 16 ports of 10 Gbps FCoE
- Up to eight ports of 40 Gbps quad data rate (QDR) InfiniBand
- Slots for up to 12 hot-swappable flash storage modules (2 TB or 4 TB modules)
- Configurable 4 - 48 TB of capacity for increased flexibility
Reliability, availability, and serviceability
FlashSystem 840 storage products deliver the following enterprise-class reliability features:
- Concurrent code load enables customer applications to remain online during firmware upgrades to all components, including the flash modules.
- Hot-swappable flash modules by way of tool-less front panel access. If a flash module failure occurs, critical customer applications can remain online while the defective module is replaced.
- Redundant hot-swappable components. RAID controllers, management modules, interface cards (all contained in the canister), batteries, fans, and power supplies are all redundant and hot-swappable. All components are easily accessible through the front or rear of the enclosure, so IBM FlashSystem 840 does not need to be moved in the rack and no top access panels or cables need to be extended.
- RAID 0 and RAID 5 configurations for reliability that suits varying client needs.
- System-wide RAID 5 with easily accessed front-loadable hot-swappable flash modules to help prevent data loss and improve availability.
- IBM Variable Stripe RAID™ (VSR), which is a patented IBM technology that provides an intra-module RAID stripe on each flash module.
- Two-dimensional (2D) Flash RAID, which consists of IBM Variable Stripe RAID and system-wide RAID 5. Variable Stripe RAID technology helps reduce downtime and maintain performance and capacity in the event of partial or full flash chip failures. System-wide RAID 5, with easily accessed hot swappable flash modules, helps prevent data loss and promote availability.
- Flash Cell leveling, which is a technology that reduces flash cell wear because of electrical programming.
Energy and space efficiency
FlashSystem 840 has the following features:
- Nominal 625 W power consumption (for a 30/70 write/read workload on an eight module 2 TB flashcard system), and uses two standard, single-phase (100 v - 240 v) electrical outlets.
- Space-efficient 2U form factor that is ideally suited for today's data centers.
Manageability and security
FlashSystem 840 offers the following manageability and security features:
- Advanced security for data at rest with hardware-accelerated AES-XTS 256 encryption
- Graphical user interface (GUI) and command-line interface (CLI) based on IBM SAN Volume Controller, which is available in any supported browser
- SAN Volume Controller CLI
- Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
- Email alerts
- Syslog redirect to send system log messages to another host
Architecture and key components
IBM FlashSystem 840 enclosures consist of two fully redundant canisters. Each canister contains a RAID controller, two interface cards, and a management controller with an associated 1 Gbps Ethernet port. Each canister also has a USB port and two hot-swappable fan modules. Figure 3 shows a rear view of FlashSystem 840, which contains one canister.
In addition to the canisters, IBM FlashSystem 840 enclosures include two battery modules and two power supplies, which are all redundant and hot-swappable. All components are easily accessible by way of the front or rear of the unit, so IBM FlashSystem 840 does not need to be moved in the rack, and any top access panels or cables do not need to be extended. This makes servicing the unit easy.
The front of the enclosure has the two battery modules on the far left of the enclosure and twelve flash module slots to the right of the battery modules, as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Front view of FlashSystem 840
Figure 3 shows the components of IBM FlashSystem 840 from the rear. One of the two canisters is removed, and you see two interface cards and two fan modules. The power supply unit to the right of the fans provides redundant power to the system. All components are concurrently maintainable except for the midplane, enclosure LED board, power interposer board, batteries, and RAID canisters. All external connections are from the rear of the system.
Figure 3. Rear view of FlashSystem 840 with one canister removed
FlashSystem 840 contains two canisters. Each canister contains a RAID controller, two interface cards, and a management controller with an associated Ethernet port.
Figure 4 shows a rear view of FlashSystem 840 with Fibre Channel (FC) or Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) interfaces. The canisters are to the left (large units) and the two power supply units are to the right (small units).
Figure 4. Rear view with Fibre Channel interface cards
Table 1 lists the specifications for FlashSystem 840.
Table 1. Specifications
|Form factor||2U rack-mounted enclosure.|
|Flash module quantity||Up to 12 flash modules in increments of 2, 4, 8, or 12. These modules can be either 2 TB or 4 TB and cannot be intermixed.|
|Flash type||Enterprise multilevel cell (eMLC).|
|Raw capacity (terabyte) (TB/TiB)||5.5 TB, 11 TB, 22 TB, 33 TB, 44 TB, or 66 TB|
(5 TiB, 10 TiB, 20 TiB, 30 TiB, 40 TiB, or 60 TiB).
|RAID 0 usable capacity (TB/TiB)||4 TB, 8 TB, 16 TB, 24 TB, 32 TB, or 48 TB |
(3.75 TiB, 7.5 TiB, 15 TiB, 22.5 TiB, 30 TiB, or 45 TiB).
|RAID 5 usable capacity (TB/TiB)||4 TB, 8 TB, 12 TB, 20 TB, 24 TB, or 40 TB |
(3.75 TiB, 7.5 TiB, 11.25 TiB, 18.75 TiB, 22.25 TiB, or 37.5 TiB).
|Maximum capacity||For RAID 0, the maximum capacity is 48 TB.|
For RAID 5, the maximum capacity is 40 TB.
|Flash module protection||ECC error correction, Variable stripe RAID data protection, overprovisioning, and IBM two-dimensional Flash RAID.|
|RAID support||RAID 0 and RAID 5.|
|Host interfaces||Two RJ45 Ethernet connections for management and up to 16 host interface connections, which are either SFP+ FC or QSFP InfiniBand connections, depending on the selected features.|
|Maximum bandwidth||8 GBps Read (100%, sequential), 4 GBps Write (100%, sequential).|
|Read latency||135 µs.|
|Write latency||90 µs.|
|Maximum volume support (LUNs)||2 K (2048).|
|Cooling||Four hot-swappable fan modules.|
|Power supply||Two redundant hot-swap 100 - 240 V AC auto-sensing power supplies.|
|Input power||900 watts maximum, 625 watts RAID 5 typical operation.|
|Heat dissipation||1194 BTU (maximum configuration RAID 5).|
|Hot-swap parts||All active components.|
|Security features||AES XTS 256 data-at-rest encryption.|
|Platforms supported||For specific information, see the IBM System Storage Interoperation Center (SSIC) at http://www.ibm.com/systems/support/storage/ssic/interoperability.wss.|
|Warranty||Set of Machine Types in AAS:
|Service and support||Optional warranty service upgrades and post-warranty services are available onsite with 24x7 2-hour, 24x7, or 9x5 same day, or 9x5 next business day response,|
|Dimensions||Width: 445 mm (17.5 in.) (19-inch Rack Standard)|
Depth: 761 mm (29.96 in.)
Height: 86.2 mm (3.39 in.)
The following set of Machine Types are supported in AAS as follows:
- 9840-AE1 - Warranty period 1 year
- 9843-AE1 - Warranty period 3 years
All FlashSystem 840 storage systems ship with the backup batteries, flash modules and blanks, power supplies, fans, and canisters preinstalled. (The flash module type and quantity and the host interface I/O cards must be pre-specified.)
The following items are also shipped with FlashSystem 840:
- System chassis
- Rack rail kit
- Warranty documentation
- Printed quick start guide
- Selected power cables
- Selected interface cables (if any)
IBM FlashSystem 840 supports only one interface type per system. For example, it is not possible to use two Fibre Channel interface cards and two InfiniBand interface cards in the same enclosure.
Interface cards are sold in groups of four for a total of eight or 16 ports for each system.
IBM FlashSystem 840 supports the following interface protocols and number of connections:
- Fibre Channel (16 ports of 8 Gbps; these ports also support 4 Gbps)
- Fibre Channel (eight ports of 16 Gbps; these ports also support 8 Gbps and 4 Gbps)
- Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) (16 ports of 10 Gbps FCoE)
- InfiniBand (eight ports of QDR 40 Gbps)
Fibre Channel support
Fibre Channel and Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) protocols use the same interface cards. However, only one protocol is supported per IBM FlashSystem 840 enclosure. Figure 5 shows the Fibre Channel interface card.
Figure 5. Fibre Channel interface card
IBM FlashSystem 840 supports the 16 Gbps Fibre Channel connection speed through the standard Fibre Channel interface card.
Here are the rules for supporting 16 Gbps Fibre Channel on IBM FlashSystem 840:
- If you use 16 Gbps Fibre Channel, only two (of the four) ports on the Fibre Channel modules can be used. The two left-most ports (1 and 2) on each interface card are used for 16 Gbps support. The two rightmost ports (3 and 4) are disabled when 16 Gbps is sensed on any port in IBM FlashSystem 840.
- If you use 16 Gbps Fibre Channel, all four of the Fibre Channel modules are configured for 16 Gbps. This configuration supports a total of eight Fibre Channel ports for the system (2 ports x 4 interface cards).
- Four Gbps and 8 Gbps Fibre Channel connections are supported on the same system connecting to 16 Gbps devices, but there are still only a total of eight available active ports (ports 1 and 2 on each interface card). For example, an IBM FlashSystem 840 system can have four Fibre Channel connections at 16 Gbps and four Fibre Channel connections at 8 Gbps.
- Fibre Channel interfaces support Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) only, with point-to-point (FC-P2P), arbitrated loop (FC-AL), and switched fabric (FC-SW) topologies. FC interfaces can be configured as N_port or NL_port types.
- Full active-active multipathing across all interfaces is supported. Host software support for this function might vary.
Fibre Channel over Ethernet support
FlashSystem 840 supports 16 ports of 10 Gbps Fibre Channel over Ethernet. FCoE uses the same interface cards as FC.
Fibre Channel Interface Cards
Table 2 shows the supported interface cards.
Table 2. Supported interface cards
|FC/FCoE Host Interface Card||AF15|
AF18, AF19, or AF1A
|Up to 16 ports of 8 Gbps Fibre Channel (with AF18)|
Up to eight ports of 16 Gbps Fibre Channel (with AF19)
Up to 16 ports of 10 Gbps Fibre Channel over Ethernet (with AF1A)
|8 Gb FC 8 Port Host Optics||AF18||Up to 16 ports of 8 Gbps Fibre Channel|
|16 Gb FC 4 Port Host Optics||AF19||Up to eight ports of 16 Gbps Fibre Channel|
|10 Gb FCoE 8 Port Host Optics||AF1A||Up to 16 ports of 10 Gbps Fibre Channel over Ethernet|
InfiniBand interface card
IBM FlashSystem 840 supports four two-port InfiniBand 40 Gbps cards. A total of eight ports of 40 Gbps InfiniBand connections are supported per IBM FlashSystem 840.
IBM FlashSystem 840 InfiniBand cards each have two x 4 ports. The InfiniBand card ports can connect to Quad Data Rate (QDR), Double Data Rate (DDR), or Single Data Rate (SDR) InfiniBand HCAs by using the SCSI RDMA Protocol (SRP). IBM FlashSystem 840 InfiniBand interfaces support SCSI RDMA Protocol (SRP) only.
Figure 6 shows an InfiniBand card.
Figure 6. InfiniBand card
Table 3 lists the supported InfiniBand interface card.
Table 3. Supported InfiniBand interface card
|QDR IB 4 Port Host Interface Card||AF16||Eight ports of 40 Gbps QDR InfiniBand|
FlashSystem 840 provides configurable flash module capacity. All modules are hot-swappable.
FlashSystem 840 can be populated with up to 12 flash modules in increments of 2, 4, 8, or 12. These modules can be either 2 TB or 4 TB and cannot be intermixed. Capacity can be upgraded by purchasing the AF10 (2 TB) or AF11 (4 TB) flash module feature codes as MES upgrades. Here are the upgrade paths:
- Using AF10 (2 TB)
- RAID 0: Start with 4 TB and grow to 8 TB, 16 TB, or 24 TB.
- RAID 5: Start with 4 TB and grow to 12 TB or 20 TB.
- Using AF11 (4 TB)
- RAID 0: Start with 32 TB and grow to 48 TB.
- RAID 5: Start with 8 TB and grow to 24 TB or 40 TB.
Table 4 lists the supported flash modules.
Table 4. Supported flash modules
|Description||Feature code||Maximum quantity supported|
|2 TB eMLC Flash Module||AF10||12|
|4 TB eMLC Flash Module||AF11||12|
For RAID 0, these configurations have capacity points of 4 TB, 8 TB, 16 TB, 24 TB, 32 TB, and 48 TB.
For RAID 5, these configurations have capacity points of 4 TB, 8 TB, 12 TB, 20 TB, 24 TB, and 40 TB.
IBM Variable Stripe RAID
Variable Stripe RAID data protection is a unique, self-healing data protection that is managed independently by each flash controller on each flash module. With Variable Stripe RAID, every flash controller creates a striped data layout across its set of 10 chips similar to a 9+1 RAID 5 array with rotating parity. The Variable Stripe RAID stripe (page) size is 4 KB. When the Variable Stripe RAID algorithm detects a failure affecting one or more flash module in a RAID stripe, the following process happens:
- Data that is stored in the affected regions is reconstructed from the remaining data/parity elements in the stripe.
- All pages in the affected stripe, including the reconstructed data, are moved to reserved space (overprovisioned area).
- Subsequent requests for data in the affected stripe are directed to the new locations (now part of the normal storage area in the system).
- The original location of the affected stripe is added to the available overprovisioned area as a (n-1) + parity stripe. (For example, if the affected stripe was a 9+1 stripe, it becomes an 8+1 stripe.).
No system-level rebuild process is necessary to maintain data protection or usable capacity after a failure caught by Variable Stripe RAID. Further more, the entire Variable Stripe RAID recovery process is automatic and transparent to the user and administrator, and typically takes place in less than a second. Variable Stripe RAID activities are not normally tracked in system logs, but the root causes of failures that are typically handled by Variable Stripe RAID-plane failures and block failures are tracked in system counters and reflected in the overall flash module and system health metrics.
IBM Two-dimensional (2D) Flash RAID
The combination of IBM Variable Stripe RAID and system-level RAID 5 protection across flash modules is called two-dimensional (2D) Flash RAID. Variable Stripe RAID automatically and transparently protects against partial or full flash chip failures within the flash module, with no downtime or maintenance required. System-level RAID 5 adds protection against complete flash module failure and enables hot-swappable flash modules. Additionally, all active components are redundant and hot-swappable with tool-less access from the front or back of the system, enhancing two-dimensional RAID protection.
RAID 5 and RAID 0 support
In RAID 5 or RAID 0 modes, up to 2048 logical volumes (sometimes referred to as LUNs) can be created in the system, with a minimum size of 1 MB and a maximum size of the full available system capacity. In RAID 0, failures of single flash modules containing data compromise system data integrity for logical volumes that are stored on those flash modules. Under the direction of the management module, RAID module field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) can coordinate data transfer between modules, for example, to rebuild the system-level RAID 5 data layout, if RAID 5 mode is active.
FlashSystem 840 supports the network cables that are listed in Table 5.
Table 5. Supported network cables
|Description||Feature code||Maximum quantity supported|
|Fibre Channel cables (supported on Fibre Channel ports)|
|1 m Fiber Cable (LC-LC)||3700||16|
|5 m Fiber Cable (LC-LC)||3701||16|
|InfiniBand cables (supported on InfiniBand ports)|
|1 m IBM QSFP Cop IB||A0RD||8|
|3 m IBM QSFP Cop IB||A0RE||8|
|3 m IBM QSFP Opt QDR IB||5989||8|
|10 m IBM QSFP Opt QDR IB||5990||8|
|1 m Mlnx QSFP Cop FDR14 IB||A2YG||8|
|3 m Mlnx QSFP Cop FDR14 IB||A2YH||8|
|3 m Mlnx QSFP Opt FDR14 IB||A2YL||8|
|10 m Mlnx QSFP Opt FDR14 IB||A2YN||8|
Table 6 lists the supported power cords.
Table 6. Supported power cords
|Description||Feature code or part number||Maximum quantity supported|
|Line cord - 2.8m (China)||6210||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (Aus/NZ)||6211||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (Europe)||6212||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (Denmark)||6213||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (S. Africa)||6214||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (UK)||6215||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (Swiss)||6216||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (Ita/Chile)||6217||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (Israel)||6218||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (S Korea)||6219||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (Argentina)||6222||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (India)||6269||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m 120V (US)||6313||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (Japan)||6314||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (Taiwan)||6386||2|
|Line cord - 2.8m (Brazil)||6532||2|
FlashSystem 840 storage system provides support for AES XTS 256 data-at-rest encryption when the Encryption Enablement Pack, feature AF14, is ordered.
The management modules in FlashSystem 840 storage system are processor complexes in the RAID module. The management modules are configured for active-passive redundancy. The management modules run a highly customized Linux-based operating system that coordinates and monitors all significant functions in the system.
The management modules provide a Java based web interface, Secure Shell (SSH) access, and SNMP connectivity through external Ethernet interfaces. The web and SSH interfaces allow administrators to monitor system performance and health metrics, configure storage, and collect support data, among other features.
IBM FlashSystem 840 includes the usage of the common IBM SAN Volume Controller CLI and the IBM SAN Volume Controller GUI, which is based on the IBM XIV® GUI. IBM FlashSystem 840 supports SNMP, email forwarding (SMTP), and syslog redirection for complete enterprise management access.
The storage configuration includes defining logical units with capacities, access policies, and other parameters. No software needs to be installed on host computers to administer FlashSystem 840 beyond a web browser with Java support or a standard SSH client.
Navigating the management tool is simple. You can hover the cursor over one of the five function icons on the left side of the window, which highlights the function icon and shows a list of options. You can then move the cursor to the wanted option and click it. The GUI has three main sections for navigating through the management tool:
- Function Icons (left side)
- Status bars (bottom)
- Actions menu (upper left, or right-click the home page)
To the right of the upper middle of the GUI is the function key for managing the security of the user that is logged in. In the upper right corner is the Help button, which provides information about licenses and gives access to the FlashSystem 840 information center.
On the far left of the window are five function icons:
- The Monitoring menu
- The Volumes menu
- The Hosts menu
- The Access menu
- The Settings menu
At the bottom of the window are three status indicators. These indicators provide information about capacity usage, throughput in megabytes per second (MBps), IOPS, and the health status of the system.
The management GUI is the primary tool to manage the system. Figure 7 shows the management GUI and the associated menu options.
Figure 7. IBM FlashSystem 840 Management GUI
The CLI provides support for the following tasks:
- Managing users
- Configuring event notifications
- Configuring Call Home
- Configuring network settings
- Configuring hosts interface I/O ports
- Configuring a logical unit (volume)
- Setting access policies
- Backing up configuration settings
- Restoring configuration settings
IBM FlashSystem 840 supports a wide range of operating systems (Windows Server 2003 and 2008, Linux, and IBM AIX®), hardware platforms (IBM System x®, IBM Power Systems™, and x86 servers not from IBM), HBAs, and SAN fabrics. For specific information, see the IBM System Storage Interoperation Center (SSIC):
Physical and electrical specifications
FlashSystem 840 has the following physical, electrical, and environmental specifications:
- Dimensions and weight
- Width: 445 mm (17.5 in.) (19-inch rack standard)
- Depth: 761 mm (29.96 in.)
- Height: 86.2 mm (3.39 in.)
- Weight: 17.69 kg (39 lb)
- Air temperature
- Operating: 10°C to 35°C (50°F to 95°F) at 30.5 m below to 3,000 m above sea level (100 ft below to 9,840 ft above)
- Non-operating: -10°C to 50°C (14°F to 125°F)
- Relative humidity
- Operating: 20% - 80%
- Non-operating: 10% - 90%
- Electrical power
- Voltage range: 100-240 V AC
- Frequency: 50 - 60 Hz
- Acoustical noise emission
- 8.0 bels (idling)
- 8.0 bels (operating)
- Power consumption
- 900 watts maximum, 625 watts RAID 5 typical operation, per 2U
- Heat dissipation
- 1194 BTU per hour
Warranty information and upgrades
IBM FlashSystem 840 is shipped with a one-year and a three-year warranty.
Technical Advisor (TA) support is provided during the warranty period. The TA enhances end-to-end support for the client’s complex IT solutions. The TA uses an integrated approach for proactive, coordinated cross-team support to allow customers to maximize IT availability. TA support for FlashSystem is delivered remotely and includes a documented support plan, coordinated problem and crisis management, reporting on the client's hardware inventories and microcode levels, and consultation regarding FlashSystem microcode updates. The Technical Advisor conducts a Welcome Call with the client and provides a statement of work for this support.
IBM Global Financing
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IBM Global Financing offerings are provided through IBM Credit LLC in the United States, and other IBM subsidiaries and divisions worldwide to qualified commercial and government customers. Rates are based on a customer's credit rating, financing terms, offering type, equipment type, and options, and may vary by country. Other restrictions may apply. Rates and offerings are subject to change, extension, or withdrawal without notice.
Financing solutions from IBM Global Financing can help your customers stretch their budget and affordably acquire the new product. But beyond the initial acquisition, our end-to-end approach to IT management can also help keep their technologies current, reduce costs, minimize risk, and preserve their ability to make flexible equipment decisions throughout the entire technology lifecycle.
Related publications and links
For more information, see these resources:
- Implementing IBM FlashSystem 840, SG24-8189
- IBM Redbooks Solution Guides and Product Guides for the IBM FlashSystem family
- IBM FlashSystem 840 information center
- IBM FlashSystem family product page
- IBM System Storage Interoperation Center (SSIC)
- IBM Support Portal
- IBM Offering Information page (announcement letters and sales manuals):
On this page, enter FlashSystem, select the information type, and then click Search. On the next page, narrow your search results by geography and language.
This material has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is published AS IS. It has not been the subject of rigorous review. IBM assumes no responsibility for its accuracy or completeness. The use of this information or the implementation of any of these techniques is a client responsibility and depends upon the client's ability to evaluate and integrate them into the client's operational environment.